Martensitic Stainless Steel

Martensitic stainless steel refers to a type of stainless steel whose microstructure is mainly martensite. The chromium content of martensitic stainless steel is in the range of 12%-18%, and its main alloying elements are iron, chromium and carbon.

Quick Views of Martensitic Stainless Steel

Category Stainless Steel
Definition A type of hardenable stainless steel with Martensitic structure
Heat Treatment Annealing, Quenching, Tempering (QT)
Alloy Elements Cr, Ni, C, Mo, V
Weldability Poor
Magnetic Medium
Micro Structure Mainly Martensitic
Typical Grades Cr13, 2Cr13, 3Cr13
Applications Steam turbine blade, Tableware, Surgical Instruments, Aerospace, Marine industries

Martensitic stainless steel can adjust its mechanical properties through heat treatment and is a kind of hardenable stainless steel. Martensitic stainless steel can be divided into martensitic chromium steel and martensitic chromium-nickel steel according to different chemical compositions.

1. Martensitic Chromium Steel

In addition to chromium, martensitic chromium steel also contains a certain amount of carbon. The chromium content determines the corrosion resistance of steel. The higher the carbon content, the higher the strength, hardness and wear resistance. The normal structure of this type of steel is martensite, and some also contain a small amount of austenite, ferrite or pearlite. It is mainly used to manufacture parts, components, tools, knives, etc. that require high strength and hardness, but do not require high corrosion resistance. Typical steel grades are 2Crl3, 4Crl3, 9Crl8, etc.

2. Martensitic Chromium-Nickel Steel

Martensitic chromium-nickel steel includes martensitic precipitation hardening stainless steel, semi-austenitic precipitation hardening stainless steel and maraging stainless steel, etc., all of which are high-strength or ultra-high-strength stainless steels. This kind of steel has low carbon content (less than 0.10%) and contains nickel. Some grades also contain high elements such as molybdenum and copper. Therefore, this kind of steel has high strength, while combining strength and toughness as well as corrosion resistance. Performance, weldability, etc. are better than martensitic chromium steel. Crl7Ni2 is the most commonly used low-nickel martensitic stainless steel.

Martensite precipitation hardening stainless steel usually also contains Al, Ti, Cu and other elements. It precipitates Ni3A1, Ni3Ti and other dispersion strengthening phases on the martensite matrix through precipitation hardening to further improve the strength of the steel. Semi-austenite (or semi-martensitic) precipitation hardening stainless steel, because the quenched state is still austenite, so the quenched state can still be cold worked and then strengthened by intermediate treatment, aging treatment and other processes. In this way, the austenite in the martensitic precipitation hardening stainless steel can be directly transformed into martensite after quenching, which leads to the disadvantage of difficulty in subsequent processing and forming. Commonly used steel grades are 0Crl7Ni7AI, 0Crl5Ni7M02A1 and so on. This type of steel has a relatively high strength, generally reaching 1200-1400 MPa, and is often used to make structural parts that do not require high corrosion resistance but require high strength.

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